• Introduction
  • Reasons for Extraction
  • Types of Extraction
  • Simple Extraction
  • What can I Expect After an Extraction?
  • Instructions after tooth extraction

Tooth extraction

Generally, dentists do everything within their power to preserve your natural teeth. However, in cases of advance caries or periodontitis, a tooth may have to be extracted. Teeth may also be removed for the purposes of orthodontics when teeth are straightened using braces. For example, your front teeth may be skew because there is not enough room for them in your mouth. An orthodontist may, therefore, suggest extraction of certain teeth to make space for teeth in your jaw.

Reasons for Extraction

The most most common reason for extraction is tooth damage due to breakage or decay. There are additional reasons for tooth extraction:

  • Severe tooth decay or infection.
  • Extra teeth which are blocking other teeth from coming in.
  • Severe gum disease which may affect the supporting tissues and bone structures of teeth.
  • In preparation for orthodontic treatment (braces)
  • Teeth in the fracture line
  • Fractured teeth
  • Insufficient space for wisdom teeth (impacted third molars).
  • Receiving radiation to the head and neck may require extraction of teeth in the field of radiation.
  • Deliberate, medically unnecessary, extraction as a particularly dreadful form of physical torture.

Types of Extraction

Extractions are often categorized as “simple” or “surgical”.
1.) Simple extractions are performed on teeth that are visible in the mouth, usually under local anaesthetic, and require only the use of instruments to elevate and/or grasp the visible portion of the tooth. Typically the tooth is lifted using an elevator, and using dental forceps, rocked back and forth until the Periodontal ligament has been sufficiently broken and the supporting alveolar bone has been adequately widened to make the tooth loose enough to remove. Typically, when teeth are removed with forceps, slow, steady pressure is applied with controlled force.
2.) Surgical extractions involve the removal of teeth that cannot be easily accessed, either because they have broken under the gum line or because they have not erupted fully. Surgical extractions almost always require an incision. In a surgical extraction the doctor may elevate the soft tissues covering the tooth and bone and may also remove some of the overlying and/or surrounding jawbone tissue with a drill or osteotome. Frequently, the tooth may be split into multiple pieces to facilitate its removal. Surgical extractions are usually performed under a general anaesthetic.

Simple Extraction

To extract a tooth, your dentist first administers a local anaesthetic in the area. Next, he firmly places extraction forceps over the crown of the tooth. He manually loosens the tooth, and then removes it. This is the most basic method of tooth extraction. Alternatively, he places an elevator between the tooth and the tooth socket, and carefully levers the tooth out.
However, sometimes it is impossible to remove a tooth using these methods, and then surgical intervention is required. Under local or general anaesthetic, the gum is cut over the relevant area, and the bone exposed. A section of bone is then removed to expose the root of the tooth, which is removed. Finally, the gum is stitched back together again.

What can I Expect After an Extraction?

It is critical to keep the area clean and prevent infection immediately following the removal of a tooth. Your dentist will ask you to bite down gently on a piece of dry, sterile gauze, which you must keep in place for up to 30 to 45 minutes to limit bleeding while clotting takes place. For the next 24 hours, you shouldn’t smoke, rinse your mouth vigorously, or clean the teeth next to the extraction site.

Sterile gauze to be placed at the extracted socket to stop bleeding

A certain amount of pain and discomfort is to be expected following an extraction. In some cases, your dentist will recommend a pain killer or prescribe one for you. It may help to apply an ice pack to the face for 15 minutes at a time. You may also want to drink through a straw, limit strenuous activity, and avoid hot liquids. The day after the extraction, your dentist may suggest that you begin gently rinsing your mouth with warm salt water (do not swallow the water). Under normal circumstances, discomfort should lessen within three days to two weeks. If you have prolonged or severe pain, swelling, bleeding or fever, call your dentist at once.

Instructions after tooth extraction

These are the instruction usually given to reduce complication such as excessive bleeding or infection after extraction:

  1. Please don’t spit or rinse after extraction for today.
  2. Make sure to bite gauze which ha s been placed over the extracted socket.
  3. Please bite the gauze for 30 minutes to allow bleeding ceased.
  4. Please not to change gauze too often.
  5. Take pain killer given if painful.
  6. Avoid taking food or drink which is too hot.
  7. If socket still bleeds; not to be too worry. You can rinse gently with some cold water.
  8. You can brush your teeth but gently and avoid the extraction site.
  9. On the following day, rinse with salt water.

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